Multiple Myeloma 多發性骨髓瘤(英文)
Multiple Myeloma 多發性骨髓瘤(英文)
Multiple myeloma is a cancer caused by malignant mutation of plasma cells in the body and abnormal proliferation. Myeloma can invade bone marrow and cause bone pain in many parts of the body, affect normal hematopoietic function, leading to anemia, platelet deficiency, immunodeficiency or life-threatening diseases. The disease is commonly found in middle-aged and elderly people aged 60 to 70, about 98% of whom are diagnosed after 40 years old, and 60% of whom are men.
- Bone pain: When severe, it can cause pain and pathological fracture.
- Increased blood calcium levels: can cause loss of appetite, nausea, thirst, fatigue, muscle weakness, confusion and drowsiness, and coma in serious cases.
- Infection: The most common infection is pneumonia, followed by urinary tract infection.
- Anemia: Patients are prone to fatigue or dizziness.
- Renal dysfunction and neurological impairment.
- Blood tests.
- Biochemical examination: serum protein electrophoresis can detect exceptionally large amounts of single immunoglobulin or light chain protein, while the 24-hour urine protein electrophoresis can detect the presence of special light chain proteins in the urine of about two-thirds of patients.
- Biopsy or bone marrow extraction: the purpose of this test is to observe the presence of myeloma cells.
- Bone X-ray: determines whether the patient has a fracture or if the bone is invaded by cancer cells.
Chemotherapy is the main treatment. If symptoms of bone pain occur, besides analgesics, radiotherapy can also be used for local irradiation. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) can prolong disease-free survival and overall survival for young patients (generally under 65 years old), with fewer comorbidities and better overall condition. Therefore, the choice of chemotherapeutic drugs is based on the possibility of patients receiving AHSCT,
- Chemotherapy: For patients who are not expected to receive AHSCT, the standard first-line chemotherapeutic drug is melphalan combined with prednidolone, with which about 40-50% of patients can achieve remission. Targeted therapy based on Velcade or Lenalidomide may be considered for patients who are expected to receive AHSCT.
- Velcade targeted therapy: Its role is to prevent cancer cells from growing and dividing by blocking enzymes in cancer cells.
- Clinical trials: there will be many new drugs available for multiple myeloma in the future. If there is an opportunity, you may consider participating in clinical trials of new drugs when all conventional drug treatments are ineffective.
Multiple myeloma may have some serious complications, such as pain, fracture, hypercalcemia, renal failure, infection and anemia.
Complications may occur in any part of the body. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can help control some complications, but the disease will affect immunity and kidney function. Most patients will eventually be at risk of death because of infection, renal failure or fracture. Therefore, proper treatment of complications can reduce the patient's pain and improve their quality of life.