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Onivyde® is irinotecan covered in tiny spheres called liposomes. These spheres keep irinotecan in the bloodstream longer and help irinotecan get through the dense stroma of the pancreatic tumor, thus significantly enhancing the efficacy of irinotecan in tumor tissue.
Paclitaxel is a plant alkaloid derived from the bark of the Pacific Yew tree. Paclitaxel inhibits the action of proteins called microtubules for cell division, thus stopping cancer cells from separating into two new cells, eventually causing cell death.
Panitumumab is a monoclonal antibody which targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on cells. EGFR is found in large amounts on the surface of some cancer cells, resulting in tumors growing more quickly.
Pembrolizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to PD-1 (Programmed cell death protein 1) and blocks its interaction with PD-L1 (programmed cell death ligand 1).
Pemetrexed belongs to a group of drugs called antimetabolites. It exerts its anti-cancer effects by inhibiting production of folate that is essential for the formation of DNA and RNA.This cell damage stops the growth of cancer cells, causing the cells to die.
Pertuzumab is a monoclonal antibody which targets the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) on cells. HER2 is found in large amounts on the surface of some cancer cells, resulting in tumors growing more quickly.
Pralatrexate is classified as an anticancer antimetabolites. This drug inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis, thus stopping cell replication and eventually cause cell death. This cell damage slows or stops the growth of cancer cells in your body.
Ramucirumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and blocks the binding of VEGF-A, VEGF-C and VGEF-D. By blocking the activation of VEGFR2, ramucirumab inhibits the development of new blood vessels and helps cut off the blood supply, thereby reducing oxygen and nutrients to the tumor. This may interfere with cancer cell growth.
MabThera®SC is a combination of rituximab and hyaluronidase. Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody that targets to a protein called CD20 on the surface of white blood cells known as B lymphocytes. When rituximab attaches to these cells, the abnormal growth of the B lymphocytes is stopped and triggers cell death. Hyaluronidase is added to increase absorption of rituximab under the skin.
Temsirolimus is a kinase inhibitor which inhibits the mTOR kinase. The mTOR kinase is responsible for cell growth and proliferation. By blocking this kinase, temsirolimus can slow the growth of cancer cells.